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|سوالات ارشد تربیت بدنی 91|
|ساعت ۸:۳٠ ب.ظ روز ۱۳٩٠/۱٢/۳ کلمات کلیدی: سوالات ارشد تربیت بدنی 91|
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موفق وموئد باشید
|What would happen if you injured your back tomorrow|
|ساعت ۱:٢٢ ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٩/۱٠/٢٢ کلمات کلیدی:|
The chances of you suffering back injury are far greater than you may think. Nine out of ten adults in the western world suffer back pain at some point in their lives. Only colds and flu beat low back problems when it comes to the most common reasons for visiting a doctor or taking time off work.
So let’s suppose you go down with a really bad back tomorrow? What would you do? Visit your doctor?
It happens to thousands of people every day. For back pain, most doctors will advise you to:
A physiotherapist or good chiropractor can help, but the cost is high and ongoing. Treatment can take months: and there’s the problem.
As all athletes know, in just a few days you’ll have lost that hard-won muscle tone. Agility soon becomes a thing of the past. Performances drop like a stone. Later, when and if the pain goes, it will take months of hard and lonely work to get your full strength back.
And, worse of all, that ‘bad back’ will return again and again.
What lies behind the back pain epidemic?
That scenario is being repeated everywhere. There’s a world-wide epidemic of back pain – and all because of our increasingly sedentary lifestyles: our backs are just not conditioned for all the sitting we do.
With so much at stake, why are so few people prepared for trouble? Why isn’t everyone building a tough, flexible mid-section? Why are the causes of back injury so often ignored or misunderstood?
The answers to the ‘puzzle of back pain’ are contained in my new book, Beating Back Pain: A Sports ’s Guide to Relief. The book explains why so many people, even top athletes, train with unprotected, vulnerable spines. And more to the point, the book shows you what do to protect and treat your back.
Whether or not you have ever suffered back pain, read on. You are about to learn something vital to your fitness and your sporting lifestyle.
Why a bad back should be no surprise
A bad back comes to almost all people. It’s always inconvenient, always unexpected and always comes with distracting pain that puts a hold on your training activity.
How would that back pain spoil your lifestyle? What would the long-term effect be?
In most cases, once you sustain back injury, the damaged muscle group is unlikely to fully recover. That pain will return again and again.
No matter how you feel today, taking no action is not an option. It’s folly to wait until you are injured to try and fix things: the time to act is now.
My new book, Beating Back Pain: A Sports Physiotherapist’s Guide to Relief gives a three-step solution. My own observation confirms it’s the most comprehensive book on backs available today. As such it belongs on every athlete’s bookshelf. In it you’ll learn how to:
How to de-fuse that ticking bomb on your back
Make no mistake about the facts: on average we sit for more than 12 hour a day! That is 8-9 hours of sitting at work, then 3-4 hours at home in front of the television, reading, driving and travelling etc.
Your back needs to be in peak condition to withstand all that sitting. Unfortunately, most of us have unconditioned, unsupported, vulnerable spines – a ticking bomb waiting to explode with pain.
The problem we must face is that taking part in sport or exercise doesn’t counteract the 8-12 hours of daily sitting. In fact sport, like many other activities, can take things to the danger level.
That’s why, although we blame the cause of back pain on ‘lifting’, ‘bending’ or ‘slipping’ etc., it’s really the result of over-testing a severely weakened set of muscles – the slightest ‘wrong’ movement can cause incapacitating pain. It can happen when we lift a suitcase out of a car, pull an electric plug from a socket, slip on a spill or open a garage door.
As many will testify, the most everyday movement can put a person out of action for weeks. But that pain is a warning, a warning signal that anti-inflammatory tablets will simply disguise. For most people, an unprepared back is a long-term injury waiting to happen.
Reap the benefits of a tough, flexible back in just minutes a day
A strong, supple back improves leverage, stability and endurance. It’s the foundation for most athletic movement and without it, maximal performances cannot be achieved.
But the astonishing thing I learned during many years of helping injured athletes is that, although the advantages of having a flexible, reliable back are undisputed, few athletes include the necessary exercises in their schedule, even though those exercises take very little time or effort to complete.
As I explain below, widespread apathy means by neglecting a vital group of muscles many athletes and sportspeople have overlooked some major personal performance enhancers.
Beating Back Pain: A Sports Physiotherapist’s Guide to Relief empowers you, the reader, to take responsibility for your own back and maintain your spine in great shape.
Micro-trauma: the key to understanding back pain
The causes of back pain often lie in some part of your life that is away from your activity. Or they may be intimately bound up in the way you undertake your sport. Either way, the book will greatly improve your chances of pinpointing the hidden source of problems and prevent injury and recurrence.
Here are some typical comments from the hundreds of patients who have arrived at my clinic in severe pain seeking physiotherapy:
But that movement wasn’t what injured your back!
When a simple, normal, innocuous movement suddenly gives you acute back or neck pain, you can be sure of one thing: the movement isn’t to blame. It wasn’t what injured your back. The underlying cause will more likely have been your poor bending technique over the years, coupled with too much prolonged sitting. Both things will have inflicted repeated micro-trauma, eventually producing a severe strain.
Self-help exercises to strengthen and protect your back
The workouts and self-help exercises in Beating Back Pain: A Sports Physiotherapist’s Guide to Relief target specific muscle groups and ‘problem areas’. Some take very little effort or space to complete: there are exercises to do while sitting at a desk, lying on the floor watching TV or standing at the bathroom sink in the morning and evening. Many of the exercises are quick and discreet – no-one can see you doing them!
The simple movements take up very little time – it’s the regularity that makes them effective. Each is based on treatments for real people with common back problems, based on years of experience.
Why back pain is ALWAYS personal
I wrote Beating Back Pain: A Sports Physiotherapist’s Guide to Relief because I wanted to cut through the morass of hand-me-down tips, bad science, baseless ‘facts’ and misconceptions that surround the treatment and prevention of back pain. The aim of this report is to offer widely applicable, sound and effective advice in the full knowledge that everyone’s back pain comes attached to their specific and unique circumstances.
There are thousands of pages of advice on bad backs on the Internet, but each promotes a particular approach: heat wraps, massage, surgery, personal physiotherapy, gym-based exercise, pilates, yoga, various drugs etc.
But the fact is there is no such thing as a simple one-size-fits-all solution. What’s needed is an all-purpose independent, science-based workbook on the various treatments available. That is what we are offering today.
Beating Back Pain: A Sports Physiotherapist’s Guide to Relief: content
There is not room enough to list all the content here, but we have given a summary below of some of the major chapters.
Back exercises for sportspeople: you will find the key underlying back conditioning drills and stretches, as well as useful general instruction on stretching etc. designed more to meet the needs of active people pursuing specific types of sports.
Exercises for immediate pain relief: diagrams and instruction for treating pain: knees to chest, rocking, back rotation stretching etc
How the back works: helps you understand the main structures relating to the spine, what they are for and how they commonly get injured. Explains anatomical technicalities mentioned in other chapters.
Every day back care: practical tips, strategies and self-help advice on how to look after your stiff, sore or achy back. How to correct your posture and establish long-term care and conditioning for your back; daily activities that aggravate your back without you realising it; protective exercises relevant to your sport to prevent future episodes of back pain.
Protecting and conditioning your back: The two types of exercise for good back care:
How to handle back pain: what to do with back or neck pain. How to decide whether your pain needs urgent attention; how to handle the initial pain; what kinds of professionals you might consult to advise and help you get back to full fitness; and what kind of scan, if any, might be appropriate.
Functional, sports-specific exercises: having adequate conditioning for everyday purposes is not the same as developing sports-related strength, so once you have baseline back fitness, boost it with training that is specific to your sport and occupation. This section shows exercises for the main different types of sport that require good back protection.
How to avoid back pain: how to maintain a neutral spine whenever you bend; develop good flexibility in your hamstrings so you can bend easily from your hips rather than your lower back; follow good lifting technique
Back pain busters at home: achieve pain relief at home with these simple strategies to relieve the strain on your back, reduce pain, settle, improve mobility in your spine and reduce inflammation
Self-massage and manipulation: until relatively recently there were no self-treatment devices for back pain. I have therefore designed my own, that allows you to massage and relieve your back pain in the comfort of your own home, maintaining flexibility as well as massaging and mobilising the tight muscles and stiff joints that develop from poor posture and sports activities.
Analysing the causes of back injury: none of us is precisely average, because no two individuals are ever the same. But there are many conditions, circumstances and points in life that may cause your back to be vulnerable to injury. This chapter provides insight into some of the main circumstances that should highlight extra cautions for you.
A note from the publisher:
|Six common mistakes to avoid when training for a m|
|ساعت ٤:٤٧ ب.ظ روز ۱۳۸٩/٦/٢٩ کلمات کلیدی:|
if you run marathons or are preparing to run your first marathon, it is vital you avoid these six common mistakes.
by Jim Bledsoe
Mistake Number 1
Carrying out any runs that exceed a 10 mile distance during the four-week period before race day.
For a runner with average leg strength, it takes at least a month to recover from strenuousso that the race itself can be completed with rested, healthy leg muscles. Scientific research suggests that during this month before the race no workout should cover more than about 10 miles. Violating this principle will weaken your quads, which means that come race day they will still be reeling from the previous four week’s punishing .
To promote better recovery while still enhancing the ability to run marathon-type distances carry out a long run every two to three weeks. Gradually increase the duration of this effort to 22 miles but only run 10 to 12 of them at race pace. On alternate weeks, complete shorter-duration quality training.
Complete the last long run at least four weeks prior to race day.
Mistake Number 2
Carrying out just one workout per week at faster than goal marathon pace.
For endurance runners in general, max running speed is a good predictor of marathon potential. Improvements in max running speed almost always lead to upgrades in marathon performance. However, it is difficult to enhance max speed when only one 'speed' session is completed per week, especially when that 'speed' session is more of a tempo run than a higher-intensity effort.
Complete at least two faster-than-marathon-pace workouts per week, mixingat 10-K, 5-K, and 3-K pace with neural training (see Mistake no. 3) and placing less emphasis on tempo runs.
Mistake Number 3
Failing to complete any neural training i.e. failing to train at VO2max speed and omitting 'super sets' from the overall programme.
It is certain that VO2max workouts produce more gains in VO2max, lactate threshold, and running economy than any other type of training session; these three physiological variables are great predictors of marathon success. It is likely that super sets have a similarly strong physiological effect.
Carry out a neural workout every 10 to 15 days during the early stages of marathon training - and every week during the last eight weeks before a marathon.
Mistake Number 4
Emphasizing non-running-specific strength training.
Start preparations for a marathon with six weeks of whole-body strengthening, with an emphasis on exercises which involve most of the muscles in the body simultaneously and which avoid seated and reclining postures.
Then move on to hill training and exercises which duplicate key aspects of the gait cycle, including one-leg squats, high-bench step-ups, one-leg hops in place, bicycle leg swings, reverse bicycle leg swings, eccentric reaches with toes, and arrested step-downs, focusing on weight-bearing exercises which require high degrees of coordination and must be carried out with full body weight supported by one leg at a time.
Finally, finish with about eight weeks of explosive work, including hops, bounds, sprints, one-leg squats with lateral hops, in-place accelerations, Indian hops, drop jumps, and high-knee explosions. These moves enhance the ability to run fast, and as max running speed increases, it drags marathon pace along with it.
Mistake Number 5
Using gels during the marathon itself.
This is very tricky business, since exactly the right amount of water must be taken in with each packet of gel. Take in too much water - and you end up with a hypotonic sports drink in your gullet which delivers too few carbs to your leg muscles. Take in too little water - and you concoct a syrupy goo within your intestines which actually drags in water from surrounding tissues and spurs diarrhoea. Pour sports drink down your throat along with the gel, and you might as well begin scouting around for a Portaloo.
It is possible to use gels during the race, but you'd better have a sports-drink expert or exercise physiologist calculate your water intake for you. It's far easier to simply use a sports drink throughout the race (remember never to mix sports drink with water), a practice which will increase your chances of avoiding GI upsets and delivering enough carbohydrate to your muscles.
Mistake Number 6
Employing a training programme which is devoid of variety.
Avoid a too-heavy dependence on tempo and long running, substituting an array of higher-quality workouts, including neural sessions (see Mistake no. 3), lactate-stacker workouts (two-minute intervals at close to max pace, separated by four-minute recoveries), hill climbs, fartlek efforts, speed-strength circuits, 800-metre intervals at 3-K pace, 1200- to 1600-metre intervals at 5-K speed, 2000- to 2400-metre reps at 10-K pace, and competitions ranging in distance from 5K up to the half-marathon.
These kinds of exertions will have a much broader - and larger - impact on the key physiological variables which are important for endurance-running success, including VO2max, lactate-threshold running speed, and running economy. They will also promote the ability to run faster, which is critically important for all types of racing.
A note on Lactic Acid:
It's important to bear in mind that aqua jogging does not remove lactic acid from the leg muscles. In fact, if the aqua jogging is above a fairly minimal intensity, it will actually increase muscle lactic-acid concentrations. In truth, there's no need to fret about lactic-acid levels in the muscles. Most of the stuff is removed or metabolized within minutes after a workout is over, and of course lactic acid does not causeor stiffness.
Remember that it is your overall fitness which will determine your success at marathon racing, not the quantity of miles in your training log or even the number of long runs which you have completed. In fact, too many training-log miles will make your legs feel like logs on race day. The idea in marathon training is to 'peak' in neural and physiological fitness and in the ability to run long at goal marathon speed about a month before the race - and then to reach an even higher 'peak' in marathon capacity over the last four weeks by combining less total running and greater rest with the right amount of intense - but not prolonged - training. If you can pull that off, while retaining your confidence, you will have the greatest chance of running your best-possible race
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